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8mm FILM

There are two main types of 8mm film:

8mm FILM
8mm rs
  • This is an 8mm wide film also known as "Single 8" or "Super 8".

  • Compared to Regular 8, the perforations are smaller and the image area is approximately 1.5 times larger, resulting in improved image quality.

  • Some Single 8s with audio recordings have magnetic coatings on both ends of the film, and others have optical recordings.

Single 8

8mm rs
  • This is an 8mm wide amateur movie film also known as "Regular 8", "Standard 8", and "Double 8".

  • This film is made by shooting 16mm film back and forth, and then cutting it in half after development to make it 8mm wide, so the perforations are in the same position as 16mm film.

  • ​For Regular 8, most of the tracks are magnetic recordings that are added after development.

Regular 8

9.5mm FILM

  • A 9.5mm wide film developed in 1922 by the French film company Pathé.

  • This is a rare film that is characterized by the perforation being located in the middle of the film.


16mm FILM

  • 16mm positive film is 16mm wide and has perforations on one side and an optical soundtrack on the other side.

16mmpositive film

16mm negative
16mm negative

16mmnegative film

  • 16mm negative film is 16mm wide and has perforations on one side. There is no audio, so you will need a sound negative.

35mm sound negative
16mm sound negative
  • 16mm sound negative film is 16mm wide with perforations on one side and only an optical soundtrack on the other side.

16mmsound negative film

35mm FILM

35mm negative
  • 35mm positive film is 35mm wide and has perforations on both sides. The standard single-frame motion picture format has four perforations on each side of each frame, resulting in 16 frames per foot. Standard photographic 35 mm film has eight perforations on each side.

35mmpositive film

35mm negative
  • 35mm negative film is 35mm wide and has perforations on both sides. The standard single-frame motion picture format has four perforations on each side of each frame, resulting in 16 frames per foot. In the case of negative film, the audio will be recorded on a separate film.

35mmnegative film

35mm sound negative
35mm super negative

35mm sound negative film

35mm Super Negative Film

  • 35mm sound negative film is 35mm wide and has perforations on both sides. There is an optical soundtrack on one side.

  • Supermarkets such as movies are recorded only as text on 35mm negative film, and a complete package is created by combining the three films: image, sound, and supervising film.

About Film Types and History


Film considerations

There are many types of video film, each with different characteristics, but all have one thing in common:baseandemulsionThis means that it is made up of two main parts.

About emulsion and base (support)

An emulsion is a thin layer of gelatin that hides the image. The emulsion side can be distinguished from the base side because it has a less shiny, matte finish. On the other hand, the base surface is smooth and shiny. Color film has a glossy finish on both sides, but you can tell them apart by shining a light on the film.


About film base
The base (support) material of the film changes depending on the year of manufacture. Until the 1940s, most of the materials used nitrate, which had a high risk of spontaneous combustion. Later, acetate, which was improved and made non-combustible, and polyester, which was even stronger and had a longer shelf life, were used.

All 8mm/16mm film manufactured in the US (and all 35mm film manufactured in the US after 1952) is non-flammable.

Nitrate Film

This film was in use until around 1950, and because it uses nitrate cellulose (nitric acid), it is highly flammable and there are reports that it spontaneously ignited in an environment of about 40 degrees Celsius. Production was halted in the 1950s due to the danger of causing fires in various places. There are no 8mm or 16mm films that use nitrate. Also, there is no color film for nitrate film.

Acetate Film

Acetate film, which uses cellulose acetate, became popular around 1950. Although it has become popular as a safe alternative to highly flammable nitrate, a major drawback of acetate film is that it can cause vinegar syndrome, where it deteriorates in hot and humid environments, giving off an acetic acid odor.

Polyester Film

From the 1960s, polyester film, which is currently the most advanced film, began to become popular. Since it is based on polyester, it does not break easily and is chemically stable. Polyester film has high light transmittance, allowing more light to pass through it when held up to light. On the other hand, if the transparency is low, it is most likely acetate film.

​Sound track

There are two types of recording methods for old films and self-produced films: optical recording and magnetic recording.optical recordingThe system works by shining a thin beam of light onto the film, and the sensor converts the different concentrations of light into electrical signals, which are then converted into audio.

​magnetic recordingis recorded in the oxide band along the edge of the film and is read by the playback head of the projector.

How to Store Film


To properly preserve film, it is recommended to maintain a storage environment of 0℃ or below and a humidity level of 30-50%, particularly for color films. Acetate films, which became prevalent from the 1950s onwards, are prone to developing Vinegar Syndrome due to fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Therefore, it is crucial to manage them in a stable storage environment with low temperature, low humidity, and adequate air circulation.

Vinegar Syndrome occurs when the cellulose triacetate, the base material of the film, undergoes chemical changes, leading to acetate degradation in the presence of heat and humidity. Films affected by Vinegar Syndrome gradually warp, curl, stiffen, and, in severe cases, emit powder and deteriorate. Once Vinegar Syndrome sets in, it is challenging to completely halt the symptoms. Furthermore, the acetic gas released from such films may transfer Vinegar Syndrome to other films. To delay the onset of symptoms, it is essential to transfer films to cases with neutral pH paper or ventilated film cans, allowing the gas to dissipate until the acetic odor disappears. Subsequently, storing the films in temperatures near 0℃ and maintaining appropriate humidity becomes the key to ensuring the longevity of the films.

Film Deterioration Diagnosis

If you would like a quote, please answer the 10 questions below.
We will diagnose the degree of deterioration of your film.
Once you submit your survey, you will automatically be redirected to the quote request page.


①The film has a sour smell

​Vinegar syndrome has begun

②The film is shrank and curled
Vinegar Syndrome
Vinegar Syndrome

Film deterioration due to vinegar syndrome

③The film has become stiff
Solidified Film
Solidified Film

In a humid storage environment, the base and emulsion surface will become moist and stick together.

④The reel is rusted
Rusty Reel

​Deterioration due to oxidation of metal reel

⑤Mold has grown on the film
Moldy Film
Moldy Film

Mold may develop due to storage environments such as high temperature and humidity.

⑥The film has faded
Dye Fade
Dye Fade

Film fades due to temperature and humidity

⑦The film is wrinkled
Wrinkled Film
Cracked film

​Deterioration due to vinegar syndrome is progressing

⑧The film is torn or cut
Out of film
Out of film

Cut and repair damaged parts of the film

⑨The splicing tape has deteriorated
Splicing tape deterioration
Splicing Degradation

Old film has deteriorated splicing tape.

⑩How is the storage environment?
Warehouse Photo

〇 Warehouse where temperature and humidity can be controlled × Stored in a drawer

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